Medical advices on human health

What is rabies and how is the disease transmitted?

Rabies is a severe infectious zoonotic disease of viral origin characterized by symptoms of damage to the central nervous system. Since the virus is excreted in the saliva of sick animals, the disease is more often caused by the bite of rabid animals. The causative agent of the disease is an RNA-containing neurotropic virus (Rabies virus) belonging to the genus Lissavirus of the family "Rhabdoviridae" of the myxovirus group.
The disease is transmitted to humans as a result of the bite, scratch of rabid animals or contamination of the injured area with saliva of animals. After the virus enters the human body from the injured area, the causative agent enters the central nervous system through the nerve roots, where the viruses accumulate and encephalitis develops. Later, this virus enters the salivary glands and starts multiplying intensively.

What are the symptoms of rabies?

Rabies disease is characterized by very severe symptoms. In animals, the latent (latent) period of the disease can last 10 days, sometimes up to 3-8 weeks. In most cases, drooling and vomiting are common symptoms of rabies in animals. Animals become infectious at the end of the latent period (2-10 days before disease manifestations).
Although the latent period of rabies in humans usually lasts 1-2 months, but in some cases this period can be reduced to a week. The duration of the latent period depends on the patient's age, immune status, nature of injury (scratching, biting, spitting) and localization (proximity to the central nervous system). Latent period is shorter in children.

What do we mean by a balanced diet?

- Nutrition characterized by the optimal ratio of nutrients is called balanced. Balanced nutrition provides the optimal ratio of proteins, amino acids, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins in the daily diet for the human body.
For this, it is necessary to follow the basic rules of healthy eating, namely:
• You should choose the optimal portion size for yourself;
• The ration must contain both plant and animal products;
• Food products should be as fresh as possible;
• There should be enough fruits and vegetables in the diet. The vitamins and mineral substances in its composition have a beneficial effect on the digestive process. At the same time, it stimulates the intestines and provides the body with necessary substances;
• Foods should be chewed as much as possible;
• Sweets and flour products should be minimized in the diet.

What are the health consequences of medicines taken without a doctor's advice?

- It is important to know that the uncontrolled use of medicines without consulting a doctor causes negative reactions in most cases. So, experts predict the development of serious diseases, including allergic reactions, toxic damage to the liver, deterioration of mental activity, reduced or complete loss of vision, heart and vascular diseases, etc. they celebrate.
Treatment at home without medical supervision can both hide and change the clinical course of the disease. As a result, certain difficulties arise in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. The use of medicines at home without a doctor's supervision is unacceptable.

Until what age should a child be breastfed?

- The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that babies be fed exclusively with breast milk for the first 6 months, and after 6 months, breastfeeding should be continued with complementary foods until the age of 2 years. No matter how much we switch to complementary foods before the age of 1, we must not forget that the main source of nutrition is breast milk.
Breastfeeding fully provides the basic needs for the development of a newborn child. The most ideal food for every baby is its mother's milk.
I want to note that long-term breastfeeding has many benefits for both the baby and the mother.
Benefits of long-term breastfeeding include:
• Supports brain development;
• Breastfeeding reduces the risk of heart disease, obesity, diabetes, cancer, etc. in later years. reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as;
• Because the nutritional value of breast milk is very high, it fully meets the needs of the child;
• Protective cells and immunoglobulins in its composition always protect the child;
• Protects the mother from ovarian and breast cancer;
• Helps the mother recover faster after childbirth.
I would also like to note that long-term breastfeeding does not have any negative psychological effects on the child.

"Mothers with breastfeeding incompatibilities use some medications. How true is this?"

- This is the question that most interests mothers with a lack of milk. I would like to note that a healthy sleep regime is an extremely important factor for the lactation period, because it is during sleep that the level of the hormone prolactin, which is responsible for the production of breast milk, increases in women. Breastfeeding mothers also need plenty of fluids (at least 10-12 glasses of water each day). In addition, the mother's healthy diet (protein, carbohydrates, fruits and vegetables rich in vitamins) is very important. Also, fennel juice, black breadfruit, cumin, barley, spinach, beetroot, garlic, flaxseed and oats have been scientifically proven to increase milk supply.
There is no drug that increases milk supply, but some drugs can increase milk production hormones as a side effect. Before using these drugs, it is necessary to consult a doctor, because self-use can be dangerous for the health of both them and their babies.

At what age is marriage considered early?

- Establishing a family before the age of 18 is considered an early marriage. Despite laws and regulations prohibiting early marriage, the practice still exists in many countries. Unfortunately, cases of early marriage are not an exception in Azerbaijan.

- Why is early marriage not recommended and considered a problem?

- Early marriage has a negative impact on married individuals, their children, the family institution (system) in general, and society as a whole. Girls who enter early marriage face serious problems such as maternal and child mortality, deprivation of education and development, limitation of social and work opportunities, and domestic violence.
Early marriage is primarily characterized by the violation of children's rights. The Convention on the Rights of the Child, ratified by Azerbaijan in 1992, states that everyone under the age of 18 is considered a child. Therefore, entering into marriage before reaching the age of 18 means shortening the childhood period and violating the basic rights of children. On the other hand, according to Azerbaijani legislation, only officially registered marriages are considered legal.
The Family Code states that parental rights cannot be exercised against the interests of children under any circumstances. The Code also states that when exercising their rights, guardians must refrain from actions that may harm the child's moral, physical and mental health.

What is important for young people to know about reproductive health before marriage?

- These are some recommendations of WHO:
• The optimal age for pregnancy is 18-35;
• There should be a gap of at least 2 years between childbirth and the next pregnancy;
• When the number of births is four or more, the risk for the health of the mother and the child increases. But this does not mean that the family should not have four or more children. This means that those who want to have more children should wait for the specified interval and be under stricter medical supervision.

What problems can the baby of a teenage mother have?

- Children born due to physical problems of the mother are more likely to be underweight and therefore more likely to get sick. One of the important factors is that mothers who are children themselves do not have enough knowledge and skills to raise babies. These women's lack of basic information about reproductive health, their lack of skills to discuss sexual relations, pose a serious threat to their health, as well as their babies' health.

What complications can occur in a pregnant teenager?

- During pregnancy, adolescents are more often accompanied by increased blood pressure (hypertension), anemia (anemia), preeclampsia, increased blood pressure and loss of protein in urine (proteinuria) in the second half of pregnancy for which the exact cause is unknown. In severe cases, this condition can endanger the life of the mother and the baby. Postpartum depression is also more common in teenagers.
Due to the fact that the physical maturity of the pelvis is not completed in adolescents at the time of birth, they are more prone to complications such as obstructive labor (in spite of adequate labor activity, the progress of the future part of the fetus is not observed in the birth canal), slow labor, bleeding, as well as eclampsia (convulsions that can often result in the death of the fetus and the mother). - often found.

What are the main symptoms of bronchial asthma?

- Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by increased sensitivity of the airways to external factors and disruption of the respiratory tract. Symptoms of the disease may differ depending on the form and severity of bronchial asthma.
It refers to the characteristic symptoms of asthma:
• seizure-like shortness of breath (difficulty in breathing);
• wheezing;
• recurrent cough (especially at night);
• feeling of suffocation;
• chest pain and tightness.
Bronchial asthma is characterized by the absence of symptoms during the intervals between attacks.

What causes the exacerbation of the disease and what are the main allergens?

- The cause of exacerbation of the disease is contact with an allergen or weakening of the body's own resistance. Allergens include house dust, strong odors, smoke, feed for aquarium fish, pet dander, tobacco smoke, cold air, strong smell of paints, deodorants, perfumes, some medicines, chemicals. In addition, upper respiratory tract infections, viral infections, physical activity, and stress can also cause exacerbation of bronchial asthma.

At what age is bronchial asthma more common in children?

- Asthma can be found at any age. But the first symptoms of bronchial asthma in children usually begin before the age of 5 in 80 percent of cases. During adolescence, asthma attacks may decrease or be asymptomatic. But in adulthood, seizures begin again.

Depending on the degree of severity, what are the forms of hemophilia?

- Depending on the factor level, hemophilia patients are divided into 3 groups:
• mild hemophilia (factor level between 5-40 percent);
• medium (factor level 1-5 percent);
• severe hemophilia (factor level ≤ 1 percent).
Spontaneous and difficult-to-stop bleeding may occur in hemophiliacs. Spontaneous bleeding is observed in patients with moderate hemophilia, and in most cases, long-lasting bleeding even during minor trauma or minimally invasive intervention. In hemophilia patients with severe factor deficiency, severe bleeding occurs even without any intervention.

How are the problems of hemophilia patients solved in Azerbaijan?

- In recent years, a number of important measures have been taken in Azerbaijan regarding the treatment of people suffering from hemophilia. President Ilham Aliyev's Decree "On the implementation of the law on state care for people suffering from the hereditary blood disease hemophilia and thalassemia" is a clear example of this care. Also, in 2005, the State Program was adopted, and since 2006, blood coagulation factor drugs have been brought to our country and offered to patients free of charge.
As a result of the measures taken, normal life activities of hemophilia patients have been ensured, their lives have been extended, and the cases of disability and death from this disease have been reduced.

In what cases does breast cancer occur?

- Breast cancer is caused by the proliferation of tumor cells formed from normal cells of the breast. All the cells of the organism are destroyed after fulfilling their duties. This mechanism does not work in tumor cells. Also, the development, growth and reproduction of tumor cells occurs without obeying the body's regulatory mechanisms. If there are no external interventions that destroy these cells or stop their development, they continue their development without interruption.

What comorbidities are dangerous for the mammary gland?

- Many diseases can have a negative effect on the mammary glands. These include diseases of the nervous system, various changes in the thyroid gland, gynecological diseases, many endocrine-metabolic diseases, genetic diseases, liver diseases and others.

"Under what circumstances do benign breast lumps turn malignant?"

- Mammary gland derivatives are not malignant in 90 percent of cases. It takes a long time for any benign tumor in the mammary gland to turn into a malignant tumor. Sometimes, the wrong lifestyle, unhealthy habits, unhealthy diet, uncontrolled use of hormonal drugs, etc. factors can shorten this period and cause the growth of tumors and the development of malignant derivatives.
Fibroadenomas, the most common benign tumor of the mammary gland, turn into a malignant tumor in 1 percent of cases. The characteristic tumor of the mammary gland, which is most likely to turn into a malignant tumor, is the intraductal papilloma of the mammary gland. There are reports in the literature that this risk is up to 10-33 percent.

What are the most common spinal problems lately?

- In recent times, spine diseases have increased due to the fact that people tend to lead a sedentary lifestyle. Almost after the age of 20, most people experience occasional back pain. This should be considered as an early sign of spinal problems. One of the most common diseases of the spine is rupture of the intervertebral discs. In addition, vertebral slips (spondylolisthesis) and narrowness of the spinal canal (stenosis) are also common diseases.

- What are the main symptoms of intervertebral disc rupture and how is it diagnosed?

- Intervertebral disc ruptures manifest themselves with corresponding symptoms depending on the area of the spine. One of the main symptoms of intervertebral disc herniation is pain syndrome. If a disc herniation has occurred in any part of the spine, along with local pains in that area, these pains are usually characterized by spreading along the pinched nerve. Thus, in the case of tears in the neck region, pain is noted in the upper limbs (arms), in the lower limbs (legs) in the lumbar region, and in the thoracic region of the spine, along the ribs. In addition to the pain syndrome, patients may also experience sensory and movement disorders along the corresponding nerve, which can lead to gait disorders and loss of work ability. For this reason, it is important to make a correct diagnosis in the early stages of patients.
The disease is diagnosed by MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). If the patient has relevant clinical signs, i.e. signs consistent with a herniated intervertebral disc, an MRI examination is mandatory. Sometimes, patients mistakenly refer to us after initially undergoing a CT scan. But this is not the right approach. If the patient has pain, they should first consult a specialist and the doctor should prescribe the examination plan. In addition to diagnosing a patient through an MRI examination, we also choose treatment tactics.

- Do children have thyroid diseases?

- We find diseases of this gland in children as well as in adults. These diseases can be related to both underactivity and overactivity of the gland, as well as nodes. Treatment is carried out as in adults. Thyroid diseases can be congenital, acquired, temporary or permanent.

- At what age are thyroid diseases more common in children?

- It can be found in almost all age groups. But it is more common especially in children and adolescents. Along with other physiological problems that occur during this period, the disease should be identified in time by defining the symptoms more accurately and the treatment should be started in time.

- What should be done to maintain the normal state of the thyroid gland?

- It is necessary to follow some recommendations for maintaining the normal state of the thyroid gland, as well as for its treatment. First of all, patients are recommended to follow a diet:
• include seafood and all iodine-containing products in the diet;
• regular salt should be replaced with iodized salt;
• include selenium-rich foods or selenium supplements in your diet for better absorption of iodine.
Prevention of thyroid cancer, as well as diffuse nodular goiter, begins with proper nutrition and rejection of bad habits. The cause of toxic goiter in many cases is stress and an unhealthy lifestyle.

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Analitik Ekspertiza Mərkəzi respublikamıza daxil olan dərman vasitələrinin qeydiyyatı, dərman vasitələrinin idxalına icazənin verilməsi, aptek şəbəkəsində dərman vasitələri dövriyyəsinin və təhlükəsizliyinin tənzimlənməsi, özəl tibb və əczaçılıq fəaliyyətləri ilə məşğul olan aptek və digər tibb müəssisələrinin fəaliyyətlərinə nəzarət edilməsi funksiyasını daşıyır. Həmçinin əhali ilə əlaqə yaradaraq dərman vasitələrindən istifadə zamanı rast gəlinən arzuolunmaz təsirlər haqqıında məlumat toplyaraq vətəndaşların səhhətinə zərər yetirə biləcək səbəblərin aradan qaldırılması istiqamətində aktiv fəaliyyət göstərir.

Analitik Ekspertiza Mərkəzi respublikamıza daxil olan dərman vasitələrinin qeydiyyatı, dərman vasitələrinin idxalına icazənin verilməsi, aptek şəbəkəsində dərman vasitələri dövriyyəsinin və təhlükəsizliyinin tənzimlənməsi, özəl tibb və əczaçılıq fəaliyyətləri ilə məşğul olan aptek və digər tibb müəssisələrinin fəaliyyətlərinə nəzarət edilməsi funksiyasını daşıyır. Həmçinin əhali ilə əlaqə yaradaraq dərman vasitələrindən istifadə zamanı rast gəlinən arzuolunmaz təsirlər haqqıında məlumat toplyaraq vətəndaşların səhhətinə zərər yetirə biləcək səbəblərin aradan qaldırılması istiqamətində aktiv fəaliyyət göstərir.